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Overview There is a common sense view that there are such things as planets, rocks, tables, organisms, etc - all of them wholes or aggregates made up of parts. This belief in aggregates creates me...

Overview When it comes to concrete particulars and how they persist through time, there are two different accounts: endurantism and perdurantism. Endurantism: for a concrete particular to exist t...

Overview The starting point of the most recent metaphysics on time can be shown by arguments by McTaggart. He viewed that events and times can be order in two ways: B-Series: the ordering of even...

Overview Traditional metaphysicians have always viewed causation as a modal notion. They held that causes necessitate their effects. Hume, as an empiricist, attacked this idea because one cannot e...

Overview There has been a debate by empiricists whether the notions of necessity and possibility even belong in an ontology. Others have tried to come up to the challenge of empiricists by develop...

Overview Philosophers of the realist persuasion have claimed that propositions are also abstract entities. They describe propositions as language-independent and mind-independent abstract entities...

There is a view among philosophers that concrete particulars are wholes that are made up of metaphysically more fundamental constituents. From this there have been two main competing theories: subs...

A nominalist denies that there are universals and the big motivator for this is the view that belief of our metaphysics should be based on the simplicity of theory. The idea is that if you have two...

Overview The traditional view holds that there is a mind-independent world which we form beliefs and make statements. The truth of such beliefs and statements is based on how they correspond to th...

Overview We have gone over some examples that are vague, such as Frida being tall, or Ed is thin. In some cases there isn’t a clear line, so we just don’t know. Many theorists hold that often ther...